Document Type : research articles



This paper focuses on the multifaceted concepts of bones in texts of Edfu temple. Many religious concepts refer to this issue such as the triumph over the forces of chaos, the legend of Osiris in which his two sisters collected his limbs and bones together, and the myth of Khnum who creates the semen from bones.


Main Subjects


    1. Allen, J.P, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, (2005).
    2. Chassinat, E., Le mystère d'Osiris au mois de Khoiak, IFAO, Le Caire, (1966).
    3. Daumas, F., “Choiak Fest, ” I, 958-959.
    4. de Wit, C., Le rôle et le sens du lion dans l'Égypte ancienne, Leiden, (1951).
    5. de Wit, C., “Les inscriptions des lions-gargouilles du temple d'Edfou,” CdE 29 (1954), 29-45.
    6. Fairman, H. W., The Triumph of Horus, London, (1974).
    7. Fair man, H. W., “The Myth of Horus at Edfu: II. C. The Triumph of Horus over his Enemies a Sacred Drama (Concluded)”, JEA 30, (1944), 5-22.
    8. Faulkner, R. O., The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Stilwell: Publishing, (2007).
    9. Faulkner, R.O, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts. Warminster: Aris and Phillips, (2004).
    10. ----------------, The Lamentations of Isis and Nephtys, in Mélanges Maspero, T.1, fasc.1, MIFAO, 66, Cairo, IFAO, (1934).
    11. Gaballa, A. G. & Kitchen. K. A., The Festival of Sakar, OR, 38, (1969).
    12. Gardiner, A., “Horus the Beḥdetite”, JEA 30, (1944), 23-60
    13. Gaudard, F., The Demotic Drama of Horus and Seth. Chicago: The University of Chicago, (2000).
    14. Goyon J. & Gardiner, A. Les dieux-gardiens et la genèse des temples, BdE 92, Cairo, (1985).
    15. Haikal, F., Two Hieratic Funerary Papyri of Nesmin, 2 volumes, BAe, 15 (1972).
    16. Lichtheim, M., Ancient Egyptian Literature: The New Kingdom. Berkeley: University of California Press, III, (1980).
    17. Lucarelli, R., Demonology during the Late Pharaonic and Greco-Roman Periods in Egypt, JANER 11, (2011), 121–124.
    18. Lucarelli, R., Demons, (benevolent and malevolent), UEE, (2010).
    19. Manniche L., Sexual Life in Ancient Egypt., KPI Ltd: London and New York, (1987).
    20. Morenz, S., Egyptian Religion. Trans. A. E. Keep, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, (1973).
    21. Morgan, M., The Bull of Ombos: Seth & Egyptian Magic. Oxford: Mandrake and Mogg Morgan, (2005).
    22. Sauneron, S., “Le germe dans les Os”, BIFAO 60, (1960), 19-27.
    23. Simpson, W. K. (Ed.), The Literature of Ancient Egypt. New Haven: Yale University Press, (1973).
    24. Watterson, B., The House of Horus and Edfu: Ritual in an Ancient Egyptian Temple. Stroud: Tempus, (1998).
    25. Wilson, P, A Ptolemaic Lexikon, A Lexicographical study of the texts in the temple of Edfou, Leuven, (1997).